Salt marshes are effective in dissipating wave energy, and storm surges. Abstract This manuscript reviews the progresses made in the understanding of the dynamic interactions between coastal storms and salt marshes, including the dissipation of extreme water levels and wind waves across marsh surfaces, the geomorphic impact of storms on salt marshes, the preservation of hurricanes signals and deposits into the sedimentary records, and the importance of storms for the long term survival of salt marshes to sea level rise. A review of weaknesses, and strengths of coastal defences incorporating the use of salt marshes including natural, and hybrid infrastructures in comparison to standard built solutions is then presented. Salt marshes are effective in dissipating wave energy, and storm surges, especially when the marsh is highly elevated, and continuous. This buffering action reduces for storms lasting more than one day. Storm surge attenuation rates range from 1. In terms of vegetation properties, the more flexible stems tend to flatten during powerful storms, and to dissipate less energy but they are also more resilient to structural damage, and their flattening helps to protect the marsh surface from erosion, while stiff plants tend to break, and could increase the turbulence level and the scour. From a morphological point of view, salt marshes are generally able to withstand violent storms without collapsing, and violent storms are responsible for only a small portion of the long term marsh erosion. Our considerations highlight the necessity to focus on the indirect long term impact that large storms exerts on the whole marsh complex rather than on sole after-storm periods.
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Open Access funded by Xi’an Jiaotong University Under a Creative Commons license Abstract The occurrence of illegal medicines is a well-established global problem and concerns mostly small molecules. However, due to the advances in genomics and recombinant expression technologies there is an increased development of polypeptide therapeutics. Insulin is one of the best known polypeptide drug, and illegal versions of this medicine led to lethal incidents in the past.
Therefore, it is crucial for the public health sector to develop reliable, efficient, cheap, unbiased and easily applicable active pharmaceutical ingredient API identification and quantification strategies for routine analysis of suspected illegal insulins. Here we demonstrate that our combined label-free full scan approach is not only able to distinguish between all those different versions of insulin and the insulins originating from different species, but also able to chromatographically separate human insulin and insulin lispro in conditions that are compatible with mass spectrometry MS.
Additionally, we were also able to selectively quantify the different insulins, including human insulin and insulin lispro according to the validation criteria, put forward by the United Nations UN , for the analysis of seized illicit drugs.
Poland became a unified kingdom in the first half of the 10th century, and officially adopted Catholicism in The first major settlements were Poznań, Gniezno, Giecz, and Ostrów Lednicki. Gniezno was probably the most important city at that time, as the first king’s coronation, of Bolesław the Brave, took place there in A decade later in , the capital was moved to Kraków.
Poland became a unified kingdom in the first half of the 10th century, and officially adopted Catholicism in The fragmentation and loss of central authority could not have come at a worse time, with the Mongol Empire invading and wreaking havoc on the realm repeatedly in , , and lastly between Following its reunification, Poland experienced its golden age from the 14th till the 16th century, under the reigns of King Casimir III the Great and the monarchs of the Jagiellonian dynasty, whose rule extended from the Baltic to the Black and Adriatic seas.
After uniting with Lithuania in , the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth became the largest country in Europe. During this era, the commonwealth attracted significant immigration from Germans, Jews, Armenians, and Dutch, due in part to the freedom of confession guaranteed by the state, and the commonwealth’s atmosphere of tolerance a rather exceptional feat at the time of the Holy Inquisition.
Under the rule of the Vasa dynasty, the capital moved to Warsaw in Economically devastated by these events, the commonwealth’s power dramatically declined in the 18th century. Weak in foreign affairs and internally divided by its nobility szlachta , Russia, Prussia, and Austria seized on Poland-Lithuania’s weakness and coordinated three partitions in , , and Responding to these partitions and a drastic need for political reform, Poland became the first country in Europe and the second in the world after the United States to pass a written constitution in , a highly progressive and strong document for its time.
Despite the constitution, the commonwealth ceased to exist after , with its lands annexed by the three competing imperial powers. The following period of foreign domination was met with fierce resistance.
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Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email A Russian rescue helicopter has been shot down by Syrian rebels while searching for pilots missing after Turkey downed a Russian jet. The helicopter was forced to make an emergency landing in a government-held area in Syria’s Latakia province. A Syrian insurgent group, which uses U.
Tow missiles, said its fighters hit the helicopter with an anti-tank missile. Video footage has emerged online appearing to show the helicopter after it crashed in dense woodland. Plumes of smoke can be seen coming from the aircraft. Vladmir Putin earlier warned Turkey of “significant consequences” after the Russian plane was shot down. Turkey claimed it shot down the fighter jet because it violated its airspace. However, Putin said the jet was shot down in Syria, 4km from the Turkish border.
He told a media conference: But the loss today is a stab in the back, carried out by the accomplices of terrorists.
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Cloud’s portrait in Before Crisis. I began to think I was different His father died when he was young and he was raised by his mother. Cloud had no close friends, and perhaps as a coping mechanism, convinced himself he was superior to the other village children and so didn’t care for their company. He had a crush on Tifa, but hated her friends, calling them immature.
Although the two consider each other and are considered by others to be childhood friends, by Tifa’s own account they were not close growing up, despite him having been her neighbor. When Cloud was nine, Tifa’s mother died, and Tifa insisted she could meet her by crossing Mt. Cloud followed her and when she took a misstep, he tried to catch her but they both fell. He escaped unharmed but Tifa’s life was in grave danger.
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Female adolescents with obesity have lower household incomes across adulthood. Abstract Adolescent obesity not only has serious long-term health implications, but also the potential to lead to a socioeconomic trajectory of lower earnings and household income. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of such outcomes across the life course are poorly understood. Using birth cohort data from the British National Child Development Study to , we examined the relationship between adolescent obesity at age 16 and future household income, employment, wages, marriage and spousal earnings when individuals were in their 30s, 40s and 50s.
We additionally investigated the role of obesity persistence from childhood age 11 through to adulthood age This household income penalty was greater for women with obesity in both childhood and adulthood. The household income penalty for women appeared to be driven by a lower likelihood of marriage and lower spousal earnings for those who were married, and not by their own wage penalty in the labour market. The spousal earnings penalty occurred even when obesity did not persist into adulthood.
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Lingering infection with high-risk HPV types, such as types 16, 18, 31, and 45, can favor the development of cancer. Furthermore, HPV can induce a tumorigenic process through integration into a host genome which is associated with alterations in DNA copy number. Normally, p53 acts to prevent cell growth, and promotes cell death in the presence of DNA damage.
In short, p53 is a tumor-suppressor protein that arrests the cell cycle and prevents cell growth and survival when DNA damage occurs. Thus, inactivation of p53 by E6 can promote unregulated cell division, cell growth, and cell survival, characteristics of cancer. E6 also has a close relationship with the cellular protein E6-associated protein E6-AP , which is involved in the ubiquitin ligase pathway, a system that acts to degrade proteins.
E6-AP binds ubiquitin to the p53 protein, thereby flagging it for proteosomal degradation. Studies have also shown a link between a wide range of HPV types and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. In such cases, in vitro studies suggest that the E6 protein of the HPV virus may inhibit apoptosis induced by ultraviolet light. Because the process of transforming normal cervical cells into cancerous ones is slow, cancer occurs in people having been infected with HPV for a long time, usually over a decade or more persistent infection.
Sexually transmitted HPVs are found in a large percentage of anal cancers. Throat cancers associated with HPV have been estimated to have increased from 0.